What does pediatric Treatment mean?
The branch of general medicine which concerns exclusively with the infant, children and adolescent population is known as pediatrics. A pediatrician may diagnose illness and prescribe/operate on an individual up till 21 years of age either singly or in a team of other specialists. A range of genetic & acquired ailments affect the physiological and mental being of infants and children. Team MedcureIndia makes its readers familiar with all of these in the following lines.
Causes of pediatric diseases:
- Genetic disorders manifest due to mutations in the genes during the first three months of pregnancy, when organogenesis is being completed. Mutations may occur due to excessive dose of medications such as aspirin, acetamenophine, radiation exposure of the mother, heavy alchohol consumption, TMV virus, retinoic acid.
- Bacterial/viral/fungal infections often lead to common cold and ear problems
- Consumption of unhygienic food, dirty water, biting dirty nails often causes cholera and diarrhea in children.
- Cardiac issues are mostly congenital in children, appear soon the child is born and taken care of immediately.
- Brain disorders are due to bacterial and viral infections, hampering between the motor and sensory transmission maybe a cause of learning disability too.
Signs & symptoms of pediatric disorders:
General infections show a common group of signs such as:
- Reduced or loss of appetite, lethargic and inactive, cranky, pale appearance.
- Mild to high grade fever, swelling of the affected part and body pain.
- Runny nose, cough, nausea and vomiting, fluid discharge from ears
- Watery/constipated motions, stomach pain and cramps, smelly farts, blood in stools, jaundice
- Seizures, jerky movements, headaches, limited limb activities in case of brain diseases
Classification of pediatric diseases:
We have made the classification as per the anatomy in children, classified alphabetically as follows:
- Abdominal: Children often complain of abdominal pain. These may be due a host of reasons including cholera, diarrhea, appendicitis, flatulence, overeating. Appendicitis includes extreme pain and swelling in the appendix in the lower right region of the abdomen and often requires a surgical removal. Cholera occurs as a result of consumption of contaminated water and is treated by chronic use of medications. Diarrhea may occur as a result of overeating, food poisoning or some bacterial or fungal infections. Apart from watery motions, it is often accompanied by abdominal pain and cramps. This too requires diet monitoring and antimicrobial coverage. Constipation can be yet another cause of pain in the stomach in children, treated by giving laxatives.
- Blood disorders: In bleeding disorders of blood, the coagulation mechanism is defective and results in profuse bleeding and blood loss. Thrombocytopenia is one of them, characterized by low platelet count, platelets being required for normal coagulation of blood. Deficiency of vitamins E and K also lead to fragility of blood vessels and thus they continue to bleed for long when injured. Anemia occurs as a result of iron deficiency which ultimately leads to faulty formation of hemoglobin and thus reduced HB levels in blood giving the child a pale appearance.
- A genetically inherited condition called as sickle cell anemia, occurs due to s defect in the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. As a result, the cells do not attain a full fledged structure and function, giving them the shape of a sickle, hence the name. in an another type of inherited blood disorder called thalessemia, the faulty hemoglobin formation cycle results in the destruction of the red blood cells causing an abnormally low levels of red cells and Hb in blood.
- Cleft and craniofacial: These are a group of genetic disorders which manifest during the first trimester of pregnancy. A newborn child may have a cleft lip or palate or both. A variety of syndromes like Down’s syndrome, Treacher Collin’s syndrome, Pierre Robin’s also are seen. In addition to these, hemifacial microsomia, facial asymmetries, Crouzon’s disease also are seen commonly.
- Chest and lungs: Considering the very low immunity levels in infants and toddlers and children, they are quite vulnerable to airborne as well as bacterial infections of the lungs. Pneumonia being the most common of the bacterial and viral infection, causes general discomfort in breathing along with fever, rigors and chills. Bronchiolitis also may occur causing swelling of the small bronchioles within the lings. Air exchange becomes faulty and breathing becomes difficult. Asthma on the other hand causes severe congestion in the upper respiratory tract and lungs due to excessive deposition of smoke, dust, pollen making respiration severely hard.
- Cardiac problems: It is quite uncommon to come across newborns with congenital heart defects since 1 in 1000 live births show such anomalies. In certain cases during the period of development, atria or ventricles of the heart may develop poorly, or the valves become defective leading to conditions such as atrial septal defect ASD, ventricular septal defect VSD and most commonly occurring Tetralogy of Fallot. To operate the infant immediately after birth or to keep under observation is a collective decision of the pediatrician, neonatologist and the surgeon.
- Dermatologic: Skin diseases are quite in the infant and toddler population owing to their tendency to play in mud, dirt, put unhygienic things in and around mouth/body parts. Eczema is an area of dry, patchy, itchy and red skin occurring due to swimming in dirty water, extreme heat exposure and muddy/marshy conditions. Insect bites and stings lead to typical array of skin rashes and hives, often directing to life threatening conditions such as airway swelling, obstruction and anaphylaxis. A bacterial infection called impetigo, occurs in the form of multiple small blisters in the affected region of skin. Folliculitis is the bacterial infection of the hair follicles.
- Ear Nose and Throat ENT: The most common of these is the common cough and cold which is why parents seek a pediatrician for their children. It may be in the form of allergic rhinitis which is a running nose or pharyngitis i.e extreme inflammation of the pharynx. These are mostly allergies due to dust or pollen and bacterial/viral infections accompanied with fever, body ache and nausea. Cough with dry, sticky, wet sputum may occur depending upon the degree of inflammation and infection in the throat. Children may succumb to mouth breathing owing to reduced pharyngeal airway, deviated nasal septum or recurrent nasal blockages, snoring also becomes common in such children
- Children are more prone to middle ear infections than adults owing to the shorter, narrower and more horizontal passage. It may swell due to viral/bacterial infections causing a rise in the fluid buildup. This often leads to tremendous pain, loss of body balance, fever and tingling sensation in the eustachian tube and jaw line area. In some cases, fluid may discharge from the ears, hearing gets affected. In left unattended, permanent damage in the form of hearing loss may occur.
- Nervous system: Epilepsy is a brain disorder manifesting in the form of seizures of brief period occurring at repeated intervals. Seizures occur as a result of change in the electrical or chemical activity of brain which may occur due to trauma to the brain, reduced oxygen supply or cranial infections.
- Meningitis is a condition of bacterial infection of the meninges ie the fibrous covering of the brain and spinal cord leading to its swelling.
- Autism is a learning disability occurring in 1 in 60 live births. An autistic child has excellent motor and sensory skills and the condition may go unnoticed for quite some time of life. The behavioral pattern and communication skills of autistic children are defective. Cerebral palsy on the other hand shows defective motor coordination in children. A hand/leg or both the limbs may show jerky movements or un synchronous activity. A child also may become stiff, head may jerk if left unsupported with hands.
- Orthopedic problems: Calcium and phosphorus are important for the growth and development of bones. These not only help in the early childhood but also in the old age. However pain in the joints in the growing period is considered quite common in children. Deficiency of vitamin D in children causes ricket’s disease, with fragile bones, bird like appearance, bow legs and delicate ribcage. Oseteoporosis occurs quite later in life again due to deficiency of vitamin D and calcium leading to extremely porous bones.
- Children may sometimes be born with a condition known as juvenile idiopathic arthritis in which the child has swollen joints and reduced synovial fluid. This causes an imbalance in the gait of the toddler. Scoliosis is a bacterial infection of the spinal cord causing it to curve in an accentuated S shape making movements difficult.
- Urinary problems: Newborns with a single kidney absolutely do not pose any threat to their bodies. However they are kept under observation for some time to monitor the functioning. Children are prone to urinary tract infections with fever, painful urination and body ache. Kidney stones too may develop in a child with bad eating habits. Tumors of the urinary system are quite uncommon in this age group unless inherited genetically.
Treatment of pediatric diseases:
This is a method of preventing certain diseases in children. These are antibodies injected into the blood stream in certain doses and at specific time intervals.
1. Chickenpox (varicella, var): 2 doses, 1st at 12–15 months &2nd at 4–6 years.
2. Diptheria, tetanus and whooping cough (pertussis, DTaP): 5 doses, 1st at 2 months, 2nd at 4 months, 3rd at 6 months, 4th at 15–18 months, 5th at 4–6 years.
3. Hemophilus infuenzae type b: 3–4 doses, depending on the brand of vaccine. 1st at 2 months, 2nd at 4 months, 3rd at 6 months & last at 12–15 months.
4. Hepatitis A: 2 doses, 1st at age 1 year and 2nd at 6–12 months later.
5. Hepatitis B: 3–4 doses, depending on the brand of vaccine. 1st at birth, 2nd at 1–2 months, 3rd at 4 months, last at 6–18 months.
6. Measles, mumps, rubella: 2 doses of MMR, 1st at 12–15 months, 2nd at 4–6 years.
7. Pnuemococcal: 4 doses of Prevnar (PCV), 1st at 2 months, 2nd at 4 months, 3rd at 6 months, 4th at 12–15 months.
8. Polio: 4 doses, 1st at 2 months, 2nd at 4 months, 3rd at 6–18 months, 4th at 4–6 years.
9. Rotavirus: 2–3 doses depending on the brand of vaccine. 1st at 2 months, 2nd at 4 months, 3rd at 6 months.
A host of antimicrobials including antibacterial, antifungals and antivirals are administered in children taking into consideration their body mass index and degree of infection. Similarly analgesics and anti inflammatory drugs are also given. These medications can be given in oral form or injected intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
- Speech/motivational therapies: For cases with autism, cerebral palsy and epilepsy, various kinds of therapies are available. The child is taught to respond to a number of stimuli, train to walk/climb/ perform daily activities on his/her won. At the same time, the parents are also counseled to keep patience with such children.
- Surgery: Surgical approach is the last resort when all the above mentioned treatment protocol fails. As for example, appendix removal becomes mandatory in children in the age group of 8 to 18 years. The organ being vestigeal does not cause any complications after removal. A laser approach called lithotripsy maybe done to remove small kidney stones which do not resolve by medications, which otherwise requires a surgical approach. Fractures may require an open reduction depending upon how gross the bone deformity is.
Surgical approach is the prime choice in congenital cardiac disorders to restore the heart to normal functioning immediately after birth. The atrial and ventricular septal defects, pulmonary stenosis and tetralogy of fallot are treated in a course of 6 to 8 months period of infancy. Cleft lip and palate cases are also repaired within 3 months of infancy.
Complications & risk factors associated with pediatric disorders:
No major complications as such are reported with pediatric diseases. The only life threatening complication is anaphylaxis which occurs due to insect bites/stings. This causes extreme antibody-antigen reactions in the immune system, airway obstruction, severe rashes all over the body and may prove fatal if not attended at the right time.
Success Rate of in India:.
Be it any approach for the cure of pediatric diseases, success rates always fall in the range of 95.89 to 98.34 percent success rates.
Team MedcureIndia has always proven to be versatile in providing health care in all the strata of health departments. From guiding with the best diagnosis of the illness in infants/children to the utmost superior quality treatment, we at MedcureIndia genuinely recruit the best of pediatricians at affordable rates to our highly esteemed clients seeking help for their little ones.