Weight loss surgery is a highly upcoming field in medicine due to the highest amount of obesity incidences now in the world more than ever. Doctors around the world are observing a steady rise in obese cases due to extreme dependency on packaged and processed food. Inordinate consumption of such food deprives the body of essential nutrients and loads it with bad cholesterol and unwanted fat. Adding to this is the effect caused by minimal to total absence of physical exercise.
Though obesity can be controlled by several changes in lifestyle, the most important ones being diet and exercise, some people do not experience any change even with these changes. For such patients and those who cannot implement any changes in their lifestyle immediately due to health concerns, bariatric surgery emerges as the go-to option.
Causes of Obesity:
The root cause of obesity is an imbalance in the amount of calories consumed and the amount of calories used up by our bodies for its functions and by us for our exercise.
- Diet: Quality and quantity of diet both contribute to obesity. Highly energy- dense food, packed and processed meals and high quantities of the same are all responsible for obesity.
- Exercise: A primarily sedentary lifestyle with no synchronous reduction in diet causes obesity. A base level of exercise is necessary for everyone to enjoy optimal health.
- Genes: Some genes do predispose an individual to accumulating fat. So,if obesity has been part of your family history, you should be going the extra mile to ensure you don’t get affected.
- Medical Conditions: PCOD, hypothyroidism, diseases that hamper your ability to be active, depression and the like.
- Medications: Several anti- depressants, anti- psychotics, anti- epileptics have sedative and lethargic effects contributing to obesity. Oral contaceptives and certain anti-diabetic drugs as well lead to the same.
Types of Weight Loss Surgery:
- Gastric Banding: As the name suggests, a band is placed around the stomach to create a small pouch at the top and constrict the stomach in the area. The reduced size of the stomach would lead to the patient feeling full after eating less food. The food then passes to the larger portion of the stomach and follows the usual route to undergo digestion. Over time, the pouch does expand a little, but it still serves the purpose well. Nowadays, instead of making an incision in the abdomen to place the band, laparoscopes are used. It gives us the huge benefit of avoiding long,visible scars. Inflatable bands are preferred which have a port on the outside of the abdomen. Surgeons inject or remove saline water through the port to tighten or reduce the tightening of the band, as required.
- Sleeve Gastrectomy: In this procedure, a major portion of the stomach is surgically removed,creating a stomach that is like a slim pouch instead of a bag. It is a permanent change created which works on the same concept of achieving quick stomach-fullness to prevent over-eating. It can be performed using a laparoscope as well.
- Gastric Bypass: It is a surgical procedure wherein only a small portion of the stomach at the top is retained and the rest is detached from the digestive tract. The small intestine is also cut and its lower portion is then attached to the lower end of the pouch to establish a continuity. This establishes a condition where the patient feels like restricting the amount he consumes. Eating even in a little excess would initiate nausea and vomiting like overeating does in a normal person. The process also causes malabsorption of nutrients as a large portion of the small intestine (which is responsible for absorption of nutrients) is detached from the beginning and reattached later at another point. Hence, the food bypasses most of the tract necessary for absorption of calories, leading to added weight loss.
- Biliopancreatic Diversion: It is very similar to gastric bypass surgery. To overcome the adverse effect called dumping syndrome, the patient’s lower oesophageal sphincter (a natural constriction to control food movement at the beginning of the small intestine) is retained. Along with the sphincter a small part of the upper intestine may also be retained. These modifications reduce the incidence of post-operative complications like deficiencies and discomfort.
- Balloon Insertion: It is a non-surgical technique that is reversible. A balloon (silicone, filled with water) is inserted into the stomach using endoscopy and then inflated. This causes some space in the stomach to be constantly occupied, decreasing the craving for food. It is necessary to remove the balloon not later than 6 months to a year. Upto 20 kgs could be lost in the interval.
- Implants: New-age devices could be used to aid in achieving the same effect as the procedures above. Some of them function to produce the same effect as a bypass, others induce the feeling of fullness or work to send signals to the brain to make it think it has eaten enough.
Complications of Weight Loss Surgery:
- Bleeding: It is the most major complication that is encountered. Since the surgeries involve the abdomen where a lot of organs and large blood vessels are present, human error during surgery could result in a cause for internal haemorrhage. Early detection and control is essential.
- Hematoma or blood clot
- Infection: Can be easily controlled if precautions are taken exhaustively.
- Leaks and Perforations: Intra-abdominal leaks could arise from improper attachment, failed healing or accidental punctures by surgical instruments.
Following instructions of the doctor regarding nutrition is unavoidable if deficiencies are to be avoided.
- Low Blood glucose
- Depression and Anxiety:
These have been noted in patients, especially those suffering from “dumping syndrome”. It is a condition in which the patient feels the need to defaecate after meals along with discomfort and weakness.
- Blockage in the gut
- Re-operations may be necessary.
- Failure of procedure:
Am I a Good Candidate for Weight Loss Surgery?
Bariatric surgery is not done for all obese individuals. It is done exclusively for those patients for whom diet, exercise and othe ways of weight loss have not yielded any outcome.
It is strictly used for those who present with a BMI (Body Mass Index) in the 35-45 range. Ideal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9. A person is classified as obese when the BMI score is over 30. Surgery may be used in cases where the BMI is lesser only if deemed necessary.
Other requirements before surgery:
- Complete physical and mental health
- Blood tests showing all parameters within normal levels, especially WBCS, platelets and clotting factors (if present in low amounts will endanger the patient to infections and bleeding).
Blood pressure in normal range
- Reasonably-well lifestyle
If the patient is found otherwise, the doctor will first put the patient on a treatment regimen to correct these disease states, or improve them to acceptable levels. Only once all the parameters appear satisfactory, surgery is initiated. They are all critical to ensure the health of the patient post-surgery. If not done, the surgery may well emerge as non-beneficial and even cause death of the patient.
- It is done when the patient begins to show health problems due to his/ her weight. The most severe ones being:
Insufficient oxygen content in blood
Time Required to Recover from Weight Loss Surgery:
The recovery time varies based on the general health of the patient prior to the surgery, the type of surgery done and also on the possibility of development of complications.
On an average though, most patients are not required to stay in the hospital beyond 3-5 days. Furthermore, they can resume their routine activities within 3-4 weeks.
cautious and unrushed to avoid strain on the sutures (stitches) placed (if any). Too much strain applied may cause the sutures to rupture. Laxatives may be prescribed by the doctor if the patient suffers from constipation.
If all instructions outlined by the doctor concerning diet, activity and follow-ups are earnestly follwed, speedy recovery without complications can be ensured.
Success Rate of Weight Loss Surgeries:
Success rates, again, vary with the kind of surgery done, the health of the patient and many other factors. On an average around 65-75% of surgeries are successful.
These surgeries do not act on fat at all. They only work to control the diet intake in different ways. The decrease in food consumed, causes the body to burn fat and help the patient achieve the desired weight eventually.
To maximize chances of success and avoid long-term regain of weight, the diet and exercise protocol should be followed loyally. Some patients do regain a little weight, but it is quite negligible compared to the amount lost. Several patients do not require any further intervention.
Benefits of Weight loss Surgery:
- Weight Loss: Patients lose from 50-75% excess weight or 20-30% body weight. The weight loss will result in visible changes within a month.
- Better Sleep
- Better Breathing: due to decreased pressure on the lungs from the surrounding tissue.
- Improved Disease States: The condition of liver, cholesterol levels and blood pressure among others improve notably.
- Improved Heart Function: due to less load of tissue on it and less amount of tissue that it has to pump blood to.
- Pain Relief: Excessive weight exerts a strain on several bones, joints and muscles of the body due to their inability to carry the load. Once the load decreases, pain decreases and overall health and well-being improves.
- Pregnancy: In case of women, obesity is not your friend if you are looking to conceive. Weight loss surgery assists many such women.
- Psychological Health: A lighter, leaner body results in a good feeling in the mind. Depressive states improve.
- Increased Longevity: Life span improves quite a bit, again variable based on the post-operative care taken.
Cost Comparison for Weight Loss Surgeries:
Though bariatric surgery is offered by many countries the price range varies over a large price range.
offers curative, holistic therapy to help patients reach their weight goal in the shortest time possible. Needless to say, the expense is quite pocket-friendly.
Why Choose India for Weight Loss Surgery?
India provides optimal treatment in a cost- effective way. Most hospitals in all major cities of India offer bariatric surgeries. Here to help you with the ideal and most convenient choice for you is medcureindia.