What Is Laparoscopic Surgery?
A surgical approach making use of very small incisions in the pelvic or abdominal region guided with the help of an instrument known as a laparoscope is known as a laparoscopic surgery. It is also known as minimally invasive surgery, keyhole surgery or the band aid surgery. Quite a recent introduction in the field of surgery, it makes use of a laparoscope which is a long fiber optic cable system enabling the surgeon to view the internal structure as it moves along the pelvic or the abdominal cavity. The incisions made are way smaller than the ones made in the conventional surgery just so that the laparoscope can be inserted well. It can be used as both a diagnostic as well as a proper treatment plan.
Medical Conditions Treated With Laparoscopic Surgery:
- Removal of gall bladder (cholecystectomy): a keyhole surgery is the most widely used and also the recommended option for the removal of gall bladder or a bile duct
- Removal of appendix: The first option is always the laparoscopic approach followed by the laser method for removal of appendix in the teenage group.
- Weight loss surgery where small incisions are needed to be made and the excess fat sucked in vaccum. These are the bariatric procedures where infections, scarring and a need for a large incision needs to be avoided.
- Hernia repairing: For pelvic and penial hernia, a large incision is avoided and a small incision approach via laparoscopy is chosen.
- Cancers of the abdomen and pelvic region
- Hysterectomy (uterus removal)
- Removal of ovarian cysts and cancer, also for diagnosing the same
- Treatment of ectopic pregnancy
- Tubectomy as a part of sterilization in both males and females
Types Of Laparoscopic Surgery:
The type of laparoscopic surgery usually depends upon the type of laparoscope in use. Thus there are two types of laparoscopic surgery:
- Telescopic rod lens system: This is the most widely used laparoscope in the operative field of laparoscopy. The rod lens system has a high resolution and it is connected to two attachments; a video camera and a cold light source. It is a highly rigid laparoscope providing an image quality (rod lens system) better than the one provided by the digital laparoscope. For the illumination of the operative filed, a light source such as halogen or xenon is also used.
- Digital laparoscope: This is majorly a flexible type of laparoscope which also has the advantage of being able to improve the image quality. However due to its flexible nature, it rarely finds applications in the field of surgery since for a laparoscopic approach, rigidity is a must.
- Robotic assisted laparoscope: In this laparoscopy the robotic system translates the surgeon’s hand movements outside the body of the patient with precise surgical movements inside the abdomen. Robotic system has 3D imaging, tremor filter and articulated instruments. There is a significant improvement in visibility and manipulations.
- Different laparoscopic surgeries that are being performed by surgeons are-
- Laparoscopic Hysterectomy
- Laparoscopic Myomectomy
- Microlaparoscopic pain mapping
- Diagnostic laparoscopy
- Laparoscopic bladder support surgery
- Laparoscopic removal of ovarian cysts, endometriosis, adhesions etc.
Treatment Procedures For Laparoscopic Surgery:
For procedures of the pelvis and the abdomen, a laparoscopic approach is very common. Instruments such as graspers, scissors, clip appliers can be inserted through trocars. These are hollow tubes which are introduced into the abdomen to prevent carbon dioxide gas from leaking. Rather than a minimum 20 cm incision as in traditional (open) surgical procedure for the abdomen, four incisions of 0.5–1.0 cm, or more recently a single incision of 1.5–2.0 cm is sufficient to perform a laparoscopic removal. The length of postoperative stay in the hospital is minimal, and same-day discharges are possible in cases of early morning procedures. In certain advanced laparoscopic procedures, where the size of the specimen being removed would be too large to pull out through a trocar site, an incision larger than 10 mm must be made. The most common of these procedures are removal of all or part of the colon, or removal of the kidney. Some surgeons perform these procedures completely laparoscopically, making the larger incision toward the end of the procedure for specimen removal, or, in the case of a colectomy, to also prepare the remaining healthy bowel to be reconnected. Many other surgeons feel that since they will have to make a larger incision for specimen removal anyway, they might as well use this incision to have their hand in the operative field during the procedure to aid as a retractor, dissector, and to be able to feel differing tissue densities (palpate), as they would in open surgery. This technique is called hand-assist laparoscopy. Since they will still be working with scopes and other laparoscopic instruments, CO2 will have to be maintained in the patients abdomen, so a device known as a hand access port (a sleeve with a seal that allows passage of the hand) must be used. Surgeons who choose this hand-assist technique feel it reduces operative time significantly versus the straight laparoscopic approach. It also gives them more options in dealing with unexpected adverse events that may otherwise require creating a much larger incision and converting to a fully open surgical procedure.
Complications And Risk Factors Associated With Laparoscopic Surgery:
- The entire procedure has a limited range of motion
- The depth perception is poor.
- Chance of applying more pressure to the tissue and the organs and resulting into a damage
- This approach maybe a little difficult for surgeons to learn and adapt initially since it varies greatly as compared to the conventional methods
- Trocar insertion may cause injury to the abdominal wall, result in hematoma, umbilical cord hernia and infections
- Electrodes may pass current in the adjacent tissues and organs resulting in perforations
- Excessive exposure to cold temperatures may lead to hypothermia
Am I Good Candidate For Laparoscopic Surgery?
If any of the following criteria are on your mind, you deserve a well planned laparoscopic approach for treatment:
- Your overall health permits you to go for this approach
- You are more esthetically concerned; do not wish to take this chance of having scars in the abdomen
- Diagnosed with ovarian cyst or cancer which is in the early grades
- Gall bladder or uterus removal, reconstruction of bile duct
- You wish to undergo tubectomy procedure
Following a laparoscopic approach, patient can resume routine activities within a week’s time. Hospital stay is very minimal, same day discharge can also be done
- Gall bladder removal (cholecystectomy): 97.1 percent success
- Ovarian cysts and cancer: Depends on the stage; ranges from 40 to 55.78 percent
- Hysterectomy (uterus removal): 89 percent success
- Colorectal surgery for benign tumors: 80 percent success
- Appendix removal: 99 percent success
Benefits Of Laparoscopic Surgery:
A laparoscopic surgery has the following benefits:
- Does not require extensive hospital stay, can be discharged on the same day of the operation
- Speedy recovery
- Enhanced vision at the site of operation
- Since the procedure does not involve huge incisions to be made, chances of scarring and post operative infections are very minimal
- Post operative pain is drastically reduced, healing is highly enhanced
- Reduced bleeding, hence need for blood transfusion is avoided.
This approach would lead you to pay an amount of 20,000 INR; exclusive of the hospital stay or the additional medications used for you. This is almost less than even a quarter of what you will be charged in the United States.
Why choose India?
The leading places in terms of medical advancements is the Indian land where a host of medical ailments are corrected laparoscopically on a daily basis, making sure the benefits are achieved and side effects completely avoided.