What Does Urology Treatment Mean?
The branch of medicine dealing with diagnosis and treatment of the urinary system along with the genitals in both men and women is known as urology. Since both systems are closely associated, disease affecting one may affect the other one too in some or the other manner. Andrology and gynecology often are studied together with urology for the same reason and thus the urology branches are different for males and females since the anatomies of the reproductive systems in both the genders are different. A variety of surgical and non surgical approaches are available to treat the urology diseases depending upon their degree of severity.
Causes Of Urology Diseases:
- Inflammation along the urinary tract mainly occurs due to viral/bacterial/fungal infections as a result of unhygienic conditions e.g UTI urinary tract infection. In severe cases, septic shock may also result.
- Dehydration also leads to electrolytic imbalance leading to recurrent renal allergies and infections.
- Excess smoking/alcohol/drugs may cause overload of toxins in the blood, damage to renal vessels i.e vasculitis leading to renal disorders.
- Prolonged and uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes leads to glomerulonephritis, nephritic syndrome and chronic renal failure.
- High stress levels, excessive smoking, alcohol, drug abuse, uncontrolled hypertension may also lead to erectile dysfunction (ED).
- Trauma in the groin or pelvic region leads to swelling, pain, twisting of ducts in the scrotum.
- Varicocele i.e swelling in testicular veins, testicular cancer may lead to infertility
- Prostrate cancer may occur due to genetic alterations or secondary bacterial/viral infections in old age
Signs & Symptoms Of Urology Diseases:
- Pain in lower back region, painful urination, mild to high grade fever occur during bacterial/viral infections and allergies of the urinary tract and kidney stones.
- Change in the color of urine, ranging from dark orange, red to brown
- Reduction in the quantity and frequency of urination.
- Swelling of eyes, hands and feet due to retention of fluids.
- Nausea, vomiting, seizures
- Leakage of certain elements may occur due to faulty filtering of blood in the kidney owing to existing pathologies. These include:
Proteinuria: protein in urine.
Haematuria: blood in urine.
Uremia: uric acid in urine.
- Pain or discomfort while erection
- Decreased sperm count, reduced quantity of semen
- Painful/uncomfortable/premature ejaculation
- Pain, swelling or lump in the testicular area
Diagnostic Tests For Urology Treatment:
- The most commonly and routinely recommended are kidney function tests including blood and complete urine analysis.
- Glomerular filtration rate GFR test is a type of blood test which tells about how much of blood the kidneys can filter, also how efficiently they can expel waste products and water from the body. Serum creatinine and serum urea tests measure the level of these waste products in blood which ideally should be flushed away from body.
- Urine tests detect presence of any abnormal pus cells, proteins, blood, creatinine in urine which otherwise are not present. Urine culture tests tell about the presence and number of micro-organisms present in urine.
- Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT and MRI detect kidney stones, kidney tumors, sites of pelvic trauma.
- Biopsy: This is done in cases of urinary tract cancer where a part of the cancer mass is removed surgically to study its nature, type and aggression.
The Urology Treatment:
- Bladder training sessions: These are done in cases of cysts, strictures, diverticulums and bladder cancer where the urination is painful and the urges are strong. Patient is asked to follow a proper urine schedule and a strict diet to help reduce the pain and expel urine timely. Stents may also be placed surgically in the ureter and urethra if the stricture becomes very narrow, thus restoring the normal urine flow.
- Lithotripsy: It is a laser assisted surgical approach for the treatment of kidney stones along the urinary tract. It is a totally noninvasive an outpatient department procedure. However in cases of huge chuncks of stones, a proper invasive surgical approach for its complete removal becomes mandatory.
- Use of catheter: A long tube called catheter is inserted in to the urethra and connected to the bladder for the passage of urine in cases of acute anueria i.e no urine passage due to infections or as a part of surgical procedures.
- Dialysis: It is the last resort in cases of chronic kidney failures, nephrotic syndromes and glomerulonephritis where the kidneys totally fail to filter toxins from blood. Hence an artificial machine is used for the blood purification of expulsion of waste products. This procedure increases the life expectancy by 10-12 years, however the machine is quite cumbersome to use and the patient remains quite bed ridden. Peritoneal type of dialysis is done by patients at home with or without assistance, whereas hemo-dialysis also can be done at home and also while travelling.
- Kidney transplant: In extreme cases, a kidney transplant may be required taking into consideration the parameters of both the donor and that of the recipient.
- Penile implants / prosthesis: It is the placement of an implant or a medical device called prosthesis surgically into the corpora cavernosa of the penis. These consist of a cylinder inserted into the penis and a pump into the testes. In a semirigid type of implant, the penis feels hard during most time of the day and the hardest during having sex. In an inflatable type of implant, the penis enlarges by vigorous rubbing during masturbation and vaginal penetration. Excessive use of the cylineror improper rubbing, may cause early failure or dislocation of the implant.
- Orchiectomy: This is the first line of treatment in testicular cancer to prevent the invasion in the adjacent tissues. In this procedure, either one or both the testicles are surgically removed. Production of sperms and the ability to reproduce is possible with one testes too. However, men become infertile after removal of both the testes. It is procedure performed under general anaesthesia and patient gets discharged after complete healing.
- Lymph node surgery: This involves surgical removal of the affected lymph nodes in testicular cancer. It may be done either in a single surgery or maybe done along with orchiectomy.
- Radiation and Chemotherapy: Either of the two can be done pre or post the surgical removal of testes depending upon the stage of testicular cancer.
- Suction and drainage of the scrotum under general anaesthesia is done in cases of hernia.
Complications & Risk Factors Associated With Urology Treatment:
- Medications usually do not pose any risk, however prolonged and excess dose may lead to permanent infertility.
- Underlying systemic diseases like hypertension and high blood glucose levels pose a threat even after surgical intervention.
- Penile implants are at a risk of infection, dislocation due to trauma.
- Obesity, alcohol, smoking collectively increase the risk chances for failure of treatment in chronic renal diseases.
Success Rate In India:
The overall success rates for both acute and chronic infections which are totally taken care of by medications are quite good. Cases of chronic renal failures are 90 percent successfully managed with dialysis. Surgical approaches for correction of strictures, kidney stones are almost always a success with 1.5 percent of recurrence chance. Orchiectomy opted for surgical removal of testes shows 97 percent success rate. Penile implants however wear out after a period of 10-12 years in 78 percent of men. In approximately 2.6 percent of men, implants may fail.
Team MedcureIndia believes in working towards the betterment of its clients in terms of their healthcare by guiding them with the best possible treatment outcomes in their knowledge. As far as the diagnosis and treatment planning for urology diseases is concerned, we provide the best platforms for the same.