What Is Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery?
The surgical procedure which replaces the lost parts in the human body such as a leg, arm, finger, shoulder with the help of appliances that resemble the lost part in form and function is known as artificial limb prosthesis surgery. It is not uncommon for a limb or a part of it to get amputated in severe trauma or accident cases. In such conditions, the vitals of the patient need to be taken care of first after which a decision is made as to how to go about the lost or amputated part. The artificial part which replaces the lost part is often known as prosthesis. Prosthesis can be of various types depending both upon the material they are made up of and the function they are designed for.
Reasons For Undergoing An Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery:
- Loss of a leg, foot, arm, arm, shoulder, hand, finger as a result of sports injuries, road traffic accidents, trauma
- A need for amputation in cases of severe burns or electric shocks
- Fractures which are beyond repair, result in total fragmentation of bone and joints
- Joint diseases such as arthritis of the knee, hip which would require an artificial aid such as a ball/cap prosthesis to enable the movements and avoid friction between the joint membranes
- Loss of a part of limb or complete limb due to gangrene, diabetes such as diabetic foot
- Congenital deformities resulting in complete or partial loss of the limb or limbs
Diagnosis Required Prior To An Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery:
A thorough clinical examination is needed to rule out any existing pathological condition which would hamper the placement of the prosthesis. A blood and urine examination is mandatory prior to the planning of the prosthetic device.
- Bleeding disorders: These would complicate the prosthetic placement since bleeding will be uncontrolled.
- Malaria/jaundice/any particular infections: Any infection would cause a tremendous rise in the white blood cell count in the individual and lead to a chance of rejection of the prosthetic appliance.
- Blood group and Rh compatibility in case blood transfusion is necessary
- Liver function tests: This becomes important in order to study the overall tolerance and acceptance of the body.
- Keeping a check on systemic conditions such as asthma, diabetes and blood pressure and maintaining them at normal levels.
Types of Artificial Limb Prosthesis:
- Upper extremity prosthesis: According to the location where the prosthesis is going to be used, they can be of the following types:
- Shoulder disarticulation: Restores the shoulder joint, majorly the scapula and the clavicle, part of head of humerus
- Trans-humeral prosthesis: The complete humerus (upper arm) is replaced
- Elbow disarticulation: Replaces the elbow joint lost as result of extensive accident or trauma
- Trans-radial prosthesis: Replaces the lower arm (below the elbow)
- Wrist disarticulation: The carpel bones are replaced
- Full hand prosthesis: The entire set of metacarpels (palm) and phalanges (fingers) are replaced
- Partial hand prosthesis: A few of the metacarpels and phalanges are replaced
- Full finger prosthesis Either of the five fingers of one or both the hands are replaced completely
- Partial finger prosthesis Either of the five fingers of one or both the hands are replaced partially
Lower extremity prosthesis: Similarly according to the location of the prosthesis in the lower extremity, they can be classified as follows:
- Hip disarticulation: A prosthetic appliance can replace the hip joint which has been lost due to a disease or trauma
- Trans-femoral prosthesis: This is used to replace the thigh bone
- Knee disarticulation: An arthritic knee can be replaced with the help of knee cap made of plastic or metal thereby restoring the normal function of the joint.
- Trans-tibial prosthesis: The lower leg can also be repaired with the help of a metal rod
- Foot prosthesis: Feet can be replaced with the help of prosthetic appliances too
- Toe prosthesis: Either of the five toes of one or both the feet can be replaced completely or partially
Based on the type of function:
- Passive: These appliances are mainly used for prosthetic purposes and are static in nature. They do not perform any functions. They are mostly attached for providing rigidity to the part of body which has lost the limb or a part of it.
- Body powdered: These are partially mobile parts which are semi adjustable. They derive stimulus from the muscles of the adjacent areas
- Externally body powered (myoelectric): These are highly mobile appliances which operate on cables. The cables act as the stimulus for the movement which in turn is attached to the muscles.
Treatment Procedures for Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery:
- Pre surgical planning:This takes into consideration what kind of prosthesis the patient desires for. As for example, if the patient is more esthetically concerned and only wishes to provide rigidity where the lost part once was, a passive type of prosthesis should be a good option. Next follows the complete diagnosis of the patient in order to rule out any existing pathology which would result in failure of prosthesis placement. Once all this is carried out, the patient is explained all sorts of procedures that are being done on him for the appliance placement, how to us the appliance and how it would help him.
- Surgical planning:This is done under general anesthesia and requires hospitalization. At the time of surgery, the appliance is fitted to the amputated part with the help of attachments. These are in the form of hooks, screws, plates, bolts etc so that the new device remains in place. A host of x rays are done on the operation table in various angles so as to see how the new device has articulated. Adjustments are made accordingly if need be.
- Post surgical monitoring:This includes an extensive monitoring of the patient and helping him or her with the adjustments needed. This also requires regular help from the physiotherapist and the occupational therapist which guide the patient and enable him to adapt to the new device. This can range from six months to a year’s time till the patient is fully aware of and comfortable with the prosthesis.
Complications And Risk Factors Associated With Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery:
- Poor balance, fear of falling, prosthetic being displaced
- Back pain due to undue pressure on the spine
- Reduced mobility
- Skin irritation
- Socket issues or discomfort
Am I Good Candidate For Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery?
If you’ve been subject to loss of a limb completely or even a part of it at any stage of your life, and have this urge of still going tough, you are thinking in the right direction!. You can consider yourself as an ideal candidate for artificial limb prosthesis surgery.
The wound from an amputation heals in around 8 to 10 weeks. However it is the emotional baggage the patient carries which requires a lot of counseling sessions. However once the artificial limb is placed, it will take 2 weeks maximum for better adaptability. It requires a thorough regime to be followed as per the physiotherapist and the occupational therapist in order to adapt well and use the limb effectively.
Success rates for both the upper and the lower limb prosthesis surgeries are high, in the range of 78-88 and 85-89 percent respectively.
Benefits of Artificial Limb Prosthesis Surgery:
An artificial limb prosthesis surgery will help you in the following ways:
- It will restore your self confidence and enhance your morale
- The artificial limb helps you in doing your routine work as it had been done earlier
- It imparts rigidity to the missing part
- Helps you in looking esthetically sound
The cost of an artificial limb in India is approximately half of what it costs in the US and UK.
Why choose India:
One of the most genuine places of medical tourism and health care providers, the basic motto of team MedcureIndia is to help its clients in getting a good diagnosis of the ailment and an even better treatment planning for the same. We not only take into consideration the cost at which the treatment will be offered, but also make sure that the entire protocol is finished efficiently.