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Diabetes: Blood Sweetened By Honey

diabetes care

What Does Diabetes Treatment Mean?

The process from clinical examination to diagnosing the type of diabetes, prescribing medications to monitoring diet and encouraging for physical exercise, surgery if at all required, all fall under the procedure for diabetes treatment. The major defect lies either in the production of insulin by pancreas or reduced intake of the same by the receptor cells.

What Does Insulin Do?

  • It regulates how the body regulates and stores glucose and fat
  • It converts glucose into glycogen ie glucogenesis
  • It increases the uptake of glucose by the tissues and cells in the body.
  • It triggers the liver to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen

Causes of Diabetes:

Insulin is the major hormone which is required for the conversion of glucose into glycogen and transfer of the same to the tissues thereby balancing the blood sugar levels. Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. Thus, diabetes may be caused due to:

  • Any disturbance in the cells of pancreas which results in less or nil production of insulin.
  • In some cases, insulin levels maybe normal, but the cells receiving sugar/glucose may be faulty owing to the disconfiguration of the receptors present on their cell membranes. Since the cells do not take up glucose, the level in blood rises.
  • Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant females owing to the excess consumption of carbohydrates and glucose and insufficiency of cells to make up for it.
  • In very rare conditions, infants are born with this condition, termed as infantile juvenile diabetes.

Signs & Symptoms Of Diabetes:

  • Increased frequency of urination (polyuria)
  • Increased thirst (polydypsia) and appetite (polyphagia)
  • Glucose in urine (glycosuria)
  • High blood glucose levels
  • General weakness, weight loss,lethargy, nausea
  • Frequent headaches, blurred vision

Diagnostic Tests for Diabetes:

Various types of blood tests are done to estimate the deviation of blood glucose levels from the normal range. These tests are as follows:

  • Fasting blood sugar test: This is the most commonly done test. In this procedure, the patient is asked to fast overnight and the blood sample is collected early morning and examined for the sugar level. Normally it should be in the range of 75-99 mg/dl of blood. Extreme deviations from the upper limit of the range are suggestive of diabetes.
  • Post prandial test: This test is done two hours after having meals. Ideally, glucose level is in the range of 75-145 mg/dl blood, levels above 165 indicate diabetes.
  • Random blood glucose level check: This is done at any time of the day regardless of when he patient had the last meal. The normal range is 70-125 mg/dl of blood
  • Oral glucose tolerance test GTT: This is the choice of test in cases of pregnancy diabetes and generally done in two steps. In step one, the mother is advised for a fortnight and early morning blood sample is collected. On the same day in the clinic, 75 grams of sugar are given to the mother and blood sample withdrawn after two hours. This test basically tells about the ability of body cells to take up sugar.
  • Hemoglobin A1C test: This test determines how much amount of sugar is stuck to your red blood cells, which generally have a life span of three months.

In addition to the above mentioned blood tests, a urine test can also be done, however this is not always reliable and confirmatory.

Types of Diabetes:

There are three main types of diabetes explained as follows:

  1. Type I diabetes
  2. Type II diabetes
  3. Gestational diabetes
  4. Diabetes insipidus

Type I diabetes/Insulin dependent diabetes:

This occurs due to a fault in the beta cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas thereby leading to little or absolutely nil insulin. As a result blood glucose fails to get converted into glycogen, its uptake by the tissues is zero and the levels in the blood rise up. Type I can be considered as an autoimmune disorder in which the body produces cells to destroy the beta cells. Very rarely, tumors masses may grow in pancreas which also leads to destruction of the beta cells.

Type II diabetes/Non insulin dependent diabetes:

In this condition, the receptor cells become immune and resistant to insulin. In order to balance the blood sugar levels, pancreas begin to produce more and more of insulin until a time at which they get fatigued and stop the production totally. As a result of this, blood glucose levels are increased. Contributing factors for such conditions include obesity, lack of physical exercise, excess alcohol consumption and extreme hypertension.

Gestational/pregnancy diabetes:

This type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy due to the hormones produced which block the insulin production and uptake by the cells. It may become a serious condition if not brought to notice at the correct time. However it is also a normal routine checkup procedure which the gynecologists make sure their patients go through.

Diabetes insipidus:

It is not a true form of diabetes. It is a condition in which the kidneys fail to retain and conserve water and fluids. It occurs due to the deficiency of anti diuretic hormone, which secreted by the pituitary gland plays a major role in the water retention mechanism of the kidneys. Thus the patient complains of excess urination and frequent thirst. This causes severe dehydration and a fall in blood pressure.

Treatment of Diabetes:

Management of a diabetic case is done in the following manner:

Motivation: In case of obese individuals, counselling and constant motivation to indulge into physical exercise and yoga is a must. A proper regime as to when and how to workout is given by therapists and weight loss is observed timely.

Monitoring of the diet: A strict diabetic diet is what all patients is advised to follow. A proper write up of what all needs to be eaten at what time interval is provided to the patients. As for example, more fibrous content is added into the diet and fast food, packaged food, fats and  fried food, red meat is excluded from the chart.

Anti-diabetes medications: There are different types of anti-diabetic drugs and administered depending upon the type, degree and onset of diabetes. Type I diabetes shows decreased levels of insulin and hence insulin needs to be injected in such cases. In cases with type II diabetes, medications of three different varieties are prescribed. Those medicines which will trigger the production of insulin from the pancreas, those which will increase the sensitivity of receptor cells and those which will reduce the pace at which glucose is absorbed from the GIT are majorly given eg sulfonylureas, biguanides, alpha glucosidase inhibitors etc.

Insulin therapy: It is the standard method for insulin replacement in the body. A basal insulin dose is prescribed as one or two injections of long acting insulin. If a daily insulin pump is used, then small amounts of rapid acting insulin is advised. A bolus insulin dose to cover the sugar in food is presented as an insulin to carbohydrate ratio ( I:CHO). This ratio tells how many grams of carbohydrate can be covered by one unit of rapid acting insulin. Thus, the patients calculate how much carbohydrates will be eaten by them and then take a dose of insulin that matches with his meal.

A bolus insulin dose is given to bring blood sugar back to normal range. A high blood sugar correction bolus insulin dose can be used a correction factor to bring blood sugar back into normal range. It refers to how much blood sugar will drop after 1 unit of rapid acting insulin. Thus when blood sugar is too high, patient needs to calculate how much blood sugar is over the target and based on the correction factor the dose of insulin that will bring you down into the desired range.

Complications & Risk Factors Associated With Diabetes:

  • If diabetes runs in the family, there are more chances of inheriting it owing to genetic predispositions
  • Obesity causes a rise in the number of fat cells which are highly resistant to insulin.
  • For women with polycystic ovarian disorder, chances of getting diabetes are high.
  • High blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol and triglyceride levels also predispose to diabetes.
  • Diabetes also increases the chances of angina, stroke and atherosclerosis
  • Excess sugar levels mostly stick to mucus membranes causing neuropathy (nerve damage), retinopathy (eye damage), neuropathy (kidney damage).
  • Diabetic foot mostly occurs in feet when any cut is left open and unattended.
  • High blood glucose levels also prevent the normal pace at which healing takes place, thus major surgeries are prolonged or delayed till the normal range is achieved.

Success Rate In India:

Medications prolong the life by a good 25 to 30 years. However, the success rate of any surgery be it heart, kidney, eye or control of cholesterol and blood pressure is successful only in 46.89 percent of cases.

Why MedcureIndia?

Team MedcureIndia believes in delivering the best of diabetes treatment to its clients stuck with this condition by means of addressing the world’s top class physicians to them. We are firm followers of ‘health is wealth’ and make sure our clients’ healthcare is always on the prosperous side.