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Dermatology: Steps In Treating Skin

Dermatology

What Does Dermatology Treatment Mean?

Branch of medicine dealing with the study of ailments and correction of the diseases of skin including hair, nails, oil and sweat glands is known as dermatology. Cosmetic enhancement of skin also falls under the dermatology group. MedcureIndia gives a briefing on the subject in the following lines.

Causes Of Dermatology Diseases:

  • Bacteria, virus and fungus can cause skin infections
  • Dust, pollen may lead to skin allergies
  • Gold, silver, platinum ornaments can also trigger allergic reactions in skin
  • Food such as fish/prawns, mushrooms may lead to anaphylactic reactions of skin
  • Acne occur as a result disturbance of the oil glands
  • Rashes and itching can occur due to occupational hazards due to contact with chemicals
  • Extreme cold and hot temperatures can lead to blisters or burns, peeling of skin
  • Honey bee stings, mosquito bites, dog bites can lead to rashes and pathological patches.

Signs & Symptoms Of Dermatology Diseases:

  • Appearance of red patch, rash in and around the site of infection
  • Bleeding, pus discharge from the skin
  • Swelling, redness, flushing of skin
  • Raised bumps that are red or white.
  • Scaly, rough and peeling skin.
  • Ulcers, open sores or lesions.
  • Dry, cracked skin.
  • Fever, nausea, general irritability

Diagnostic Tests For Dermatology Diseases:

A simple visual examination by the dermatologist can help in identifying the site of disease, appearance, type and the number of sites of the same diseases. However a host of other tests are also run in order to deal with the exact nature of the disease and proceed with the line of treatment. These are as follows:

  • Patch test: It is done when a skin infection does not respond to treatment.. In this procedure, the standard contact allergens (bacitracin, balsam of peru) from a ready to use easy kit are applied on the back and held in place with the help of porous tapes. These are known allergens which are suspected to cause the particular skin infection. Skin under the patches is observed for 48 and 96 hours after application. False-positive results occur when allergens provoke an irritant rather than an allergic reaction. False-negative results occur when patch allergens do not include the offending antigen.
  • Scrapings: This procedure helps in the diagnosis of fungal infections like tinea and candidiasis, and scabies. The scrapings are taken from the border of the fungal lesion and directly placed on a slide where it is mixed with potassium hydroxide. Growth of the hyphae is a confirmation for fungal infection. In case of scabies, scrapings are taken from burrows and placed directly under a covers lip with mineral oil. The findings of mites, feces, or eggs in such cases confirm the diagnosis.
  • Wood light: It is a form of black light that can help clinicians diagnose and define the extent of lesions. It can also help distinguish hypo pigmentation from de pigmentation.
  • Tzanck testing: It can be used to diagnose viral diseases, such as herpes simplex and herpes zoster, and is done when active intact vesicles are present. However it cannot distinguish between herpes simplex and herpes zoster infections. The blister roof is removed with a sharp blade, and the base of the vesicle is scraped with a #15 scalpel blade. These  are transferred to a slide and stained with Wright stain or Giemsa stain., multinucleated giant cells are a sign of herpes infection.
  • Diascopy: This is done to examine the redness in a lesion which can be either due to blood in the superficial vessels or maybe a cause of internal hemorrhage. A microscope slide is pressed against a lesion) to see whether it blanches. Hemorrhagic lesions do not blanch; inflammatory and vascular lesions do.

Types Of Dermatology Disorders:

Arranged in an alphabetical order, these are as follows:

  • Acne: It is a very common skin condition characterized by blackheads and whiteheads and pus-filled spots (pustules). It usually starts at puberty and varies in severity from a few spots on the face, neck, back and chest. The oil glands in skin are highly sensitive to hormonal changes in the body, and when such changes occur, oil glands are triggered for the production of more oil leading to acne. This may be followed by redness and itching around the acne.
  • Alopecia areata: Alopecia is a general term for hair loss that can occur at any age.. It usually causes small, round patches of hair loss on the scalp. Hair loss elsewhere, such as in the chest, back and limbs can also be seen in a similar fashion. Hair is lost due to inflammation of the hair follicles. The etiology of this loss is unknown, however it is attributed to the defense of the immune system
  • Angioedema: It is swelling in the  of the lower layer of skin or mucous membranes, may occur in the face, tongue, larynx, abdomen. It is most commonly associated with hives, which are infections in the upper layers of skin.
  •  Basal cell carcinoma: A basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a type of skin cancer, non-melanoma category and is the most common type of all skin cancers, sometimes referred to as ‘rodent ulcers’. The commonest cause is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from sun. it  can occur anywhere on the body and is not an infectious disease.
  • Bowen’s disease: It is a non serious squamous cell carcinoma in situ, confined to the outer layers of skin. It may very rarely invade into the deeper layers of skin. Thus in the initial onset, it is only monitored timely. It majorly occurs due to exposure to UV radiation and medications causing immune suppression. In rare cases, it may occur due to human papiloma virus and following radiation therapy.
  • Contact dermatitis: It is a red, itchy rash which occurs due to direct contact with a substance or an allergic reaction to it. The rash causes quite a discomfort in the affected area, is never infectious or contagious. It may occur due contact of the skin with jewelry, perfumes, soaps or some cosmetic products.
  • Eczema: It is the plain itchy sensation over lesions and rashes and may be due to added bacterial inections, soreness and dryness. It can occur singularly or in addition to an already existing skin disease.
  • Herpes simplex: It is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus and can occur anywhere on the body. It results in small blisters in groups often called cold sores or fever blisters on the affected part.
  • Hirsutism: It is a condition of unwanted, male-pattern hair growth in women which results in excessive amounts of course hair on body areas where men typically grow hair — face, chest and back.
  • Hyperhydrosis: It is a condition of excessive sweating from the palms, feet and souls. It can be attributed to the metabolic rate of the body, anxiety levels and presence of excess number of sweat glands in the skin.
  • Ichthyosis: This is a relatively uncommon group of skin disorders characterized by the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales. It is regarded as a disorder of keratinization or cornification, and it is due to abnormal epidermal differentiation or metabolism.
  • Impetigo: It is a common infectious skin infection occurring in infants and toddlers. It appears are small red areas of soreness around a child’s moth, neck, hands and feet. The sores may burst and develop a typical feature of the infection called as honey-colored crusts.
  • Lichen planus LP: It is mostly found on the wrists, ankles and lower back and shows reddish purple polygon shaped itchy skin lesions. It may also present with a burning sensation in the mouth, burning sensation may also be felt in the mouth along with a lattice-like network of white lines near sites of erosion commonly known as Wickham striae.
  • Psoriasis: It is a chronic skin condition caused by an overactive immune system. Symptoms include flaking, inflammation, and thick, white, silvery, or red patches of skin. Psoriasis treatments include steroid creams, occlusion, light therapy and oral medications, such as biologics.
  • Scabies: Scabies is not an infection, but an infestation. Tiny mites called Sarcoptes scabiei set up shop in the outer layers of human skin. The skin does not take kindly to the invasion. As the mites burrow and lay eggs inside the skin, the infestation leads to relentless itching and an angry rash.
  • Psoriasis: It is a chronic skin condition causing flaking, inflammation, and thick, white, silvery, or red patches of skin. It occurs due to a disturbance in the immune system..
  • Urticaria/hives: It is a disease characterized by appearance of raised hives, swelling or both at once. These are localized itchy and swollen plaques of variable size; lesions are fleeting, last less than 24 hours in the same spot, and dont leave a trace.
  • Vitiligo: It is a disease that causes the loss of skin color in patches the extent and rate of which is unpredictable. It can affect the skin on any part of your body. It may also affect hair and the inside of the mouth. Normally, the color of hair and skin is determined by melanin.
  • Wart: A wart is a small growth with a rough texture that can appear anywhere on the body. It can look like a solid blister or a small cauliflower. Warts are caused by viruses in the human papilloma virus (HPV) family. The appearance of a wart depends on its location on the body and the thickness of the skin.

Treatment Of Dermatology Diseases:

Medications: Topical therapy implies application of a medicament directly onto the surface of the lesion to bring about its regression, hydrate, moisturize or act as a protective barrier. A variety of ointments, creams, lotions and gels are available for this purpose. These are inclusive of the following:

  • Antipruritics are used to relieve itching like calamine
  • Keratolytics are used to remove hyperkeratotic skin lesions. These include medications containing salicylic acid, urea
  • Tars reduce the thickness of the epidermis;
  • Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects are provided by the corticosteroids and retiniods
  • Plaque of skin and psoriasis is treated by calcipotriol which reduces the epidermal proliferation
  • Antiseptics, e.g. benzoyl peroxide, chlorhexidine, antifungal agents, sunscreens, naesthetics/analgesics are also used

Surgical management: These are a host of surgical management approaches which may intend to treat the pathological condition or enhance skin cosmetically. These approaches are as follows:

  • Anti aging and cosmetic approaches
  • Age spots and birth mark corrections
  • Chemical peel dermabrasion
  • Hair loss and restoration
  • Laser hair removal
  • Laser resurfacing and skin rejuvenation
  • Liposuction
  • Neuromodulators
  • Scar improvement
  • Tattoo removal
  • Soft tissue augmentation

Radiation and chemotherapy: These are the line of treatment depending upon the stage, location and severity of the skin cancer. The dose and frequency of the appointments are decided by the oncologist, chemo and radiation therapist under the supervision of the dermatologist.

Complications & Risk Factors Associated With Dermatology Diseases:

  • Medications used on a long term basis may have a side effect on the gastrointestinal tract of the patient may cause discomfort, nausea, vomiting
  • Bleeding disorders may also cause complications during surgical procedures if not monitored appropriately.
  • Radiation and chemotherapy may have side effects in the form of hair loss, loss of appetite and general discomfort

Success Rate in India:

Treatment of skin ailments of any type show a success rate in the range of 89.23 to 97.45 percent with a few complications mentioned above and minute chances of recurrence.

Why MedcureIndia?

One of the most genuine places of medical tourism and health care providers, the basic motto of team MedcureIndia is to help its clients in getting a good diagnosis of the ailment and an even better treatment planning for the same. We not only take into into consideration the cost at which the treatment will be offered, but also make sure that the entire protocol is finished efficiently.