Cardiovascular care in India- an overview:
Heart health in India is of utmost importance because of the increase in number of cases of heart diseases in relation with a great number of people afflicted with diabetes, hypertension and other lifestyle diseases.
In a broader sense, when it comes to cardiovascular care, it encompasses the heart health along with vascular health. However, both these disciplines go together as the heart acts as the pump and the blood vessels as the channels for this beautiful mechanics that sustain life.
In India, we perform heart surgeries like coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary interventions and other heart surgeries including heart transplant.
Why is there a great demand for cardiac health care in India?
Statistics represent India to have a major portion of the global burden of disease from heart diseases. This is reflected by the advancements in cardio care setup across the country, providing medical aid in promoting heart health.
On the contrary, this has also led to the development of reasonable developments in the area of medical tourism. Medcureindia has been one among the most prominent of the several organisations, providing quality care to our clients in this regard.
As part of medical tourism, we promote comprehensive heart care.
What are the signs and symptoms of heart disease?
The symptoms of heart disease in general with which a patient may present to a clinician may include chest pain, palpitations, lower limb swelling (or oedema), syncope (or blackouts) and dyspnoea (or breathlessness).
According to the New York Heart Association (NYHA), the stages of heart failure may be classified as follows:
- NYHA class 1: No symptoms and no limitation in ordinary physical activity. For example, no shortness of breath on walking or climbing stairs etc.
- NYHA class 2: Mild symptoms (mild shortness of breath or angina) and slight limitation on moderate activity
- NYHA class 3: Marked limitation in activity due to symptoms, even in less than ordinary activity. For example, walking short distances like 20 to 100 metres. Comfortable only at rest
- NYHA class 4: Severe limitations. Symptoms are experienced even while at rest. Most patients are bedbound in this case
The earlier the treatment given for the heart disease, the lesser will be the disability and better will be overall survival and productivity of life.
The signs of heart disease are increased heart rate (tachycardia), abnormal heart rhythm (tachyarrhythmia), hypertension and cardiomegaly. The other evidences of fluid overload like pitting pedal oedema, crepitations or crackles in the lung fields and a raised jugular venous pulse (JVP) may be seen. Signs of hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and hypertension, in the eyes and skins may also be evident.
For further information, do read on our article on angioplasty.
What are the types of diseases that can affect your cardiovascular health?
The diseases affecting cardiovascular health are as follows:
- Angina Pectoris: This refers to cardiac chest pain which develops with onset of activity and get relieved with rest. It is also referred to as stable angina. Mostly medical management is required.
- Acute coronary syndrome: This comprises of unstable angina (occurs frequently at minimal exertion or rest and increases in intensity) and myocardial infarction (or heart attack). The management is mostly interventional procedures, in its early stages. It also requires medical management in the later stages.
- Arrhythmias: Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms, and may be fast rhythms (tachyarrhythmias) or slow rhythms (bradyarrhythmias):
- Tachyarrhythmias: These include sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular flutter.
- Bradyarrhythmias: These are due to conduction blocks in the heart and can be first, second or third degree (complete) heart blocks.
- Heart failure: This refers to a pump failure following a heart attack and can be a systolic failure or diastolic failure;
- Systolic failure: Inability of the ventricles to contract adequately in order to maintain the cardiac output
- Diastolic failure: Inability of the ventricles to relax completely, increasing the filling pressures
- Hypertension: a raised blood pressure to >140/90mmHg is regarded as hypertension. Dietary modifications may help until 160/100mmHg; anything above 160/100mmHg requires medical management.
- Rheumatic fever and valvular heart diseases: Rheumatic fever is caused by Group A – beta – haemolytic streptococci, and may cause valvular heart disease. Other valvular pathologies include mitral valve prolapse, mitral valve and aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation (or incompetence).
- Infective endocarditis: The development of fever with a new murmur in the heart is suggestive of infective endocarditis. This results in the development of valvularvegetations or lesions and creates embolisms from the heart to cause end organ damage. This will require antibiotic therapy to clear the infection. It is most commonly caused by Streptococcus viridans infection.
- Pericardial diseases: This can include acute pericarditis, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis and cardiac tamponade
- Diseases of the heart muscle:Heart muscle disorders are called cardiomyopathies and maybe of 3 types- dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and restrictive cardiomyopathy
- Tumours of the heart: The most common tumour of the heart is an atrial myxoma. It is a very rare tumour. Surgical removal is indicated.
- Congenital heart diseases: These can be cyanotic or acyanotic heart diseases:
- Cyanotic heart disease: Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common. Others include transposition of the great arteries (TGA), Totally Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connections (TAPVC) etc
- Acyanotic heart disease: Atrial septal defect (ASD), Ventricular septal defect (VSD), Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) and Coarctation of the aorta. Each case is managed independently.
We have specialists in each departments dealing with congenital heart diseases, electrophysiological diseases of the heart, atherosclerotic diseases of the heart, tumours of the heart, and general cardiac health.
What are the treatment options available?
Every disease has its own treatment approach. To discuss broadly, on the cardio care facilities in India, that we provide, includes:
- General heart health checks: To do a comprehensive assessment of your heart fitness.A comprehensive heart check includes a cardiology consult and examination, which ollowed by investigations like, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography and Tread Mill Test (TMT) which are performed in order to assess the functioning of the heart and also your level of exercise tolerance.
- Angioplasty and stenting: For addressing atherosclerotic vascular blocks. For further information, kindly, read on our article on angioplasty and stenting
- Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): Is performed in cases where an angioplasty is virtually impossible in cases where the percentage block is significantly high. To know more on CABG, please read our article on Coronary artery bypass graft.
- Catheter ablation and other electrophysiological procedures: This is for aberrant conducting system in the heart, which may play a role in arrhythmias.
- Valvular heart surgery (valvuloplasty): These are surgeries of the heart valves, where the original valves are damaged due to infective diseases like rheumatic heart disease or infective endocarditis.
- Surgeries for congenital heart disease: Congenital heart diseases are anatomical defects and can be corrected by surgeries. We have special clinics who offer care to such candidates.
- Transplant surgeries: It is very novel intervention and we have cases that have been successful
The most common reasons to perform a cardiac interventional procedure is atherosclerotic heart disease.
In the earlier stages, it is possible to treat with medications. However, even in the early phases of an ischaemic cardiac event, a surgical intervention is worth considering. The decision is made by your clinical cardiologist, after discussing the possibilities and their outcomes, in your best interests.
Am I a Good Candidate for treatment or surgery?
The selection of candidates for any of these procedures or even medical intervention will be based on the outcomes of a clinical consultation with our cardiologist and your investigation reports.
So, why do you wait? Click on the link on the side of the page to drop us a message. We will be more than happy to help.
Why to check your heart?
We strive for the well being of our clients and are particular about establishing safety of every individual. The benefits of checking your heart at an earlier stage and on a regular basis can help you with early identification of any heart disorder and rectifying them by the several treatment options we provide.
Eventually, it helps in prolonging your life expectancy and helps you in achieving your goals in life, without being halted anytime by any medical problems related to your heart.
Why Choose MedcureIndia?
Our cardio care setup is one among the best in the country with a team of cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, acute and emergency medicine specialists, interventional radiologists and electrophysiologists who can attend to your requirements and come up with the best plan of care in managing every case.
We are always open for your queries. Drop us a message now.