Haematology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. Haematology is a distinct subspecialty of internal medicine, separate from but overlapping with the subspecialty of medical oncology. Treatment of blood production and its components, such as, blood cells, haemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation.Such diseases might include haemophilia blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers such as leukaemia,myeloma and lymphoma.
Physicians specialised in haematology are known as haematologists or haematologists.Hematologists may specialise further or have special interests, for example, in:
- Treating bleeding disorders such as haemophilia and idiopathic thrombocytoenic purpoura
- Treating haematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukaemia (cancers)
- Treating hemoglobinopathies
- The science of blood transfusion and work of blood bank
- Bone marrow and stem sell transplantation
Hemotologic Diseases are disorders which primarily affect the blood. Hematology includes the study of these disorders.
- Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) - are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.
- Blood cancer
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) - are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced.
- B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) - also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia (a type of cancer of the white blood cells) in adults.
- Essential thrombocytosis - is a rare chronic blood disorder characterised by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
- Bone marrow failure - occurs in individuals who produce an insufficient amount of red and white blood cells or platelets.
- Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia - occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation.
- Anemia of chronic disease - is a form of anaemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy.
- Pancytopenia - is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells , as well as platelets.
- Spherocytosis - is an auto- hemolytic anaemia characterized by the production of spherocytes ( Red Blood Cells ) or erythrocytes that are sphere-shaped rather than bi-concave disk shaped.
- Aplastic anemia - rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types ; red and white blood cells and platelets. Aplastic refers to inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells.